The success of his enterprises shows his understanding of the sociopolitical and cultural transformations of Europe at midcentury and is a tangible example that not only ideas but also artistic works could navigate the complex forces of an increasingly connected nineteenth century. As part of both a universalizing humanistic plot inherited from the eighteenth century and a corollary to the nineteenth-century political realization of the nation, the concept of cosmopolitanism can thus prove fruitful for explorations of a nuanced musical ecology during a time in which imperial expansion, technological advances, the growth of global capitalism, and the increasing complexities of urban life multiplied the possibilities and the needs for border crossing and facilitated cross-cultural encounters and reflections.
It is telling, however, that the association of music with the politics of nationalism and the construction of national identity has taken precedence in explorations of nineteenth-century musical practices. Nonetheless, avoiding the entanglements of a cosmopolitan network and its contradictory position toward the politics of nationalism, twentieth-century discourses about music continued to approach cosmopolitanism in music during the nineteenth century as nothing but an opposite to nationalism, as a stigmatized term with snobbish or racial undertones, or as a practice that would eventually corrupt the lineage of pure national musics.
To be sure, the political force of nations and ideologies of nationalism did leave a strong mark on ways of understanding music practices during the nineteenth century, a topic that has been widely explored in the literature.
Protest Music in France : Production, Identity and Audiences
However, more often than not discourses about music, nation, and culture in nineteenth-century Europe have been not only one-sided, but also, to an extent, contradictory. The degree to which these anxieties intensified as the nineteenth century progressed paralleled the pace at which the cosmopolitan presence became more conspicuous—due in part to the technological improvements that enabled wider and faster circulation of information. As Bruce Robbins noted, the dynamics of music and cosmopolitanism in the nineteenth century were ultimately an outgrowth, or ideological reflection, of global capitalism, a context too often associated with a twentieth-century malaise.
The expansion of global capitalism during the nineteenth century led to a shift from localized and private to public support for musical practices, as well as to a growing relationship between music and markets shaped by fashion, geared toward profits, and dependent on new social relations and connections beyond local and national borders. Richard Wagner was not the first, and the only one, to attempt to make himself relevant and powerful within a complex, connected world that moved in unprecedented directions.
In general, musicians working in the theater, a commercial enterprise from its inception, understood the potential of music to seize the attention of various audiences and worked toward that goal. But composers devoted to instrumental music, a medium that can operate beyond the immediate context of verbal language, were also conscious of the need to blur the lines between and among nations and locality. In fact, most artists and musicians during the nineteenth century, including those touted as pillars of national traditions, were confronted with and challenged by music markets and the need to make music meaningful both nearby and far away, and to navigate the borders of various spheres of their political, social, and cultural lives.
But the concept of cosmopolitanism is most often evoked in music literature when musicians make incursions into European cities to find a cosmopolitan urban space, to become cosmopolitans, to re produce cosmopolitan musics, and in the end, to contribute to the growth of a dominant identity matrix centered on a few cities. From this perspective, cosmopolitanism is touted as a static practice that is difficult to define in musical terms, unless it is tackled as a homogeneous musical style associated with one place and believed to belong to specific composers.
The badge of cosmopolitan may serve as a new modus operandis within the quest for canonic recognition. One should assume that cultural hybridity happens. More often than not, these approaches tend to enforce what they are supposed to interrogate. And while this might be exactly the case in most instances, as a large literature has demonstrated, the dominance of cultural relativism in social sciences has offered very few tools to move beyond normative studies about cultural distinctiveness and to allow for considerations about larger patterns of cultural relationships.
I believe that cosmopolitanism, as the concept has recently been re defined in the social sciences, is most productive to address nineteenth-century music practices when it is evoked as a way of confronting modernity and reflecting on its connected, shared cultural practices. The cosmopolitan lens can serve to elucidate large and ever-changing patterns of cultural movements not bound by the nation or by locality, to explore cultural expressions resulting from shared perceptions of the world and shared spaces of cultural attachments and detachments that ultimately come to exist beyond the marketability of cultural capital.
As a flexible signifier not bound by language, music can serve us particularly well in these explorations. What does the practice say about the music, about the process, and about those near and those far? For example, Gillen Darcy Wood explores virtuosity as an outgrowth of and a response to both markets and technology. One can suggest that Italian bravura singing offered a take on the voice as part of the mechanics of the era, and composers dedicated melodies that emphasized the visual aspects of the culture of idolatry through the voice.
These welcome studies have opened paths for redeeming nineteenth-century modernity from the confines of the politics of nationalism. Considering cosmopolitanism as a nineteenth-century experience and practice allows us to contemplate music practices originating in Europe beyond its Europeaness. But one should go further and address cosmopolitanism as an ideal that was articulated through a complex interplay of shared aesthetic modes of reflection and collective creativity.
If markets and technological advances in communication made possible the crossing of borders, engagements with cultural difference, and the extension of social belongings, they also supported shared spaces of aesthetic expressions and perceptions of the universal. The relevance of cosmopolitanism for explorations of nineteenth-century musical practices rests on the assumption that not only musical production and consumption, but also aesthetic stances and creative solutions, were shared and negotiated by many beyond geographical boundaries and the confines of politics of national cultural belonging.
Papastergiadis proposes an exploration of the aesthetic dimension of cosmopolitanism, as well as a consideration of the cosmopolitan worldview that is produced through aesthetics. Alberto Nepomuceno — lived through the trenches of a complex nineteenth-century musical world. His personal and professional life also led to connections with Edward Grieg and Gustav Mahler.
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Like many of his contemporaries, Nepomuceno had aspirations to write music for a large audience, both local and far away, and to belong to a music world as he perceived it: one that was shaped in Europe and that, he believed, had the potential to be universal. But Nepomuceno was not a citizen of, nor did he have political commitments to, any of the European countries in which he lived. At thirty years of age he moved across the Atlantic and spent his life far from European audiences in large concert and opera halls, away from the scrutiny of powerful publishers and critics.
The few publications of his music during his lifetime seldom made it to the coveted venues in Europe; only a few of his works were heard in Europe, although some were performed in his home country, mostly as part of an imagined legacy that fulfilled local nationalistic agendas. At the same time, Nepomuceno lived in a coastal capital city with a large port opened historically, politically, and commercially to Europe. The city was in many ways like many others during the nineteenth-century: an urban conglomerate and part of a larger system of political and economic expansion and technological modernization of Europe.
His life was thus set in a hub of nineteenth-century urban cultural connections, and within this context he became an accomplished composer who acquired a solid position as the leader of a local musical establishment. Nepomuceno could partake of the promises and disillusionments of modernity that were inescapable to his generation, from the technological advances that connected audiences and that fueled the rise of public entertainment, to the angst caused by the globalizing effects of a bloating capitalism, to the fast growth of political nationalism.
Like many artists of his generation, Nepomuceno was attentive to avant-garde movements and to new modes of interaction and experiences in a period of global conflicts, commercial expansion, and unprecedented cultural connections. His ability in melodic development and his fondness for classic formal structures in his symphony and some chamber works have earned him the stature of a neo-Brahmsian.
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As a composer dwelling with his own modernity, Nepomuceno explored the limits of tonality, experimented with the contingencies of musical form, toyed with various exoticisms, and made incursions into popular music styles. He penned large and small orchestral pieces and smaller instrumental works in various timbristic combinations and pondered the creative possibilities enabled by the technological advances of instruments, as he explored the associations between music and images and the expansion of the sonic through the visual.
Nepomuceno also wrote a long list of exquisite songs in a variety of languages, exploring the musical potential of poetry in various languages. Nepomuceno was a music chameleon, Dante Pignatari asserts, able to move among and make use of all styles, genres, and formal and technical possibilities available to him. It seems that his output is entrapped by its similarity to modes of establishment and subdued by its lack of originality. Goldberg and Vidal have pointed out that the composer was particularly successful in conjuring up techniques usually understood as disparate, a juxtaposition that does not reveal a synthesis, but rather a collage of apparently discordant modes of expressions.
A gamut of musical techniques and modes of musical expression available at the end of the nineteenth century is present in this work. Nepomuceno moves effortlessly among diatonicism, chromaticism, bitonality, modal harmonies, suspended cadences, politonality, harmonic clusters, pentatonicism, and whole-tone scale without the need for bridges or hybridization. As such, Nepomuceno was not alone in his creative endeavours, for several artistss confronting the transformations of the long 19 th century were also investing in the creative possibilities of cosmopolitan connections.
Composers like Nepomuceno allow us to see how nineteenth-century cosmopolitan musicians resisted geographical, cultural, and political constrains, and how they reflected on and challenged the limits of the European imagination and authority and the French, the German, the English, etc. Paradoxically, one can also say that the condition of marginality becomes an asset for Nepomuceno, for it offers him the flexibility of locating himself within several realms of the cosmopolitan scape, to invest in the possibilities of large patterns of cultural and musical connections, and to act on the implications of this cosmopolitanism by negotiating a view of the world through selection and participation.
Rodolfo Coelho points to a challenging question in this regard. Most important, they show that a cosmopolitan connection allowed composers in various places to arrive at similar solutions to similar problems within their individual global imaginaries. The exploration of a cosmopolitan experience through music casts new light on ideals of universality commonly granted to the music production of Europe, and particularly accorded to narratives of a specific nineteenth-century music canon.
Cosmopolitanism brings to the fore the possibility of universality through multiple actors and recasts the myth of the individual creator under a condition of nationality. At the same time, the cosmopolitan lens reveals the limits of the cosmopolitan experience and its assumption of openness and participation. In the end, a cosmopolitan lens cannot suggest an expansion of the nineteenth-century canon, aiming to find a place for an ever-growing number of artists left in the limbo of a music historiography devoted to national musical traits—an endeavor that would clearly be unattainable and academically unsatisfying.
The pursuit of a cosmopolitan lens of inquiry serves a less ambitious purpose. It suggests a framework for explorations of the cultural complexity and often unexpected trajectories that lie behind historical narratives of national musics and cultural ownership. In the end, I believe, the exploration of the cosmopolitan realm leads to the rethinking of how music mattered in the past and to the realization that the full story of European nineteenth-century musics is yet to be told.
Music and Social Justice
For a critique of the revival of cosmopolitanism in the social sciences, see Craig J. Holton has explored some of the historical dynamics of cosmopolitanism in Cosmopolitanisms , 57— Robert B. Scott , ed. Carol Brenckenridge et al. Durham and London: Duke University Press, , —28 , esp.
Ettinger, I will argue that the move away from binaristic models of difference marks a meaningful subversion of extant psycho-sexual structures and symbolic orders that privilege the masculine and the heteronormative. Shelina is currently active in Los Angeles DIY music scenes, as part of all-female minimalist post-punk group, Cool Moms, as well as her new garage-punk project, Kat Kong. In popular media, the feminine lesbian exists almost exclusively in fantasy. Historically, academic explorations of queer identity have focused on aspects of masculinity.
Femininity, especially where queer women are the subject, has been ignored until recently.
Protest Music in France: Production, Identity and Audiences - Barbara Lebrun - Google книги
This omission of queer femininity poses multiple problems to female adolescents and the popular notion of lesbianism. Feminine lesbians often hide under a cloak of invisibility—they exist as a minority that is virtually unrecognizable by sight. The lack of mainstream musicians further hinders their visibility and does not offer queer, feminine girls the important identity role models they require.
While diva-allies have a historically strong relationship with gay men, their adoration is problematized by the inclusion of queer girls to the fan base. The sexual identity of these vocalists creates difficulties in seeing them as strong role models from the viewpoint of queer girls even though their performed gender may translate.
By looking into online communities, the research addresses the uninhibited world of anonymous commenters as they post to videos, blogs, and articles representing these musicians. I propose that these vocalists exist in two other roles—that of a mother figure and a supportive friend, both personalities vital in the formation of a strong personal identity.
Her main interests lie in American popular music, particularly mainstream chart-pop and punk. Some of her academic pursuits are in online communities, adolescent identity, queer theory, and Irish American music. Pop- and rock-styled worship music is one of the most heavily contested markers of evangelicalism in the United States. Because of the concern with preserving worship as a neutral musical space, any strong markers of personal identity in music are instantly coded as performance, and the tension between these two categories is used to police boundaries between authentic and inauthentic expressions of evangelical piety.